study aims to explore sports bettors
Commercial arrangements between sport organizations and gambling operators are resulting in extensive promotion of gambling during televised sport. This study aims to explore sports bettors’ responses to these promotions, and สถิติหวยฮานอย วีไอพี whether this varies with problem gambling severity. Surveys with 544 Australian sports bettors with varying degrees of problem gambling severity indicate that problem gamblers have highest approval of these promotions. Compared to non-problem and at-risk gamblers, problem gamblers also report most encouragement and influence to gamble from these promotions. Problem gamblers are also more influenced to sports bet by contextual factors, particularly certain bet types and promotional appeals. Three theories are discussed to explain these results — product involvement, cue induced craving and classical conditioning. Given the rapid growth of sports betting, increasing sports betting problems, and inability to avoid gambling advertising while watching televised sport, further research is critical to understand how sports-embedded gambling promotions impact on gambling consumption and problem gambling. Research is also important to inform policy, given that sports-embedded advertising is a controversial practice prompting recent changes to broadcasting codes of practice. This exploratory study provides some foundations and future directions to inform this research effort.Harmful and unhealthy products, including alcohol, tobacco and fast food, have historically been promoted via professional sport in some countries, with sports events and associated broadcasts providing widespread exposure for advertisers and sponsoring brands. A recent entrant is the gambling industry, particularly sports betting operators. Promoting gambling through sport is raising concerns that the practice is normalizing gambling, exposing minors to gambling marketing, and fuelling increased problem gambling (Derevensky et al., 2010, Lamont et al., 2011, McMullan, 2011, Milner et al., 2013, Hing, Vitartas, & Lamont, 2013, Pettigrew et al., 2013). Further, research into gambling advertising reports that it has most effect on existing gamblers, particularly problem gamblers (Binde, 2009, Grant and Kim, 2001, Hing, Cherney, Blaszczynski, Gainsbury and Lubman, 2014), raising questions over whether this sports-associated gambling marketing is contributing to compulsive consumption of gambling.
However, little is known about how sports bettors, including those who meet criteria as problem gamblers, perceive and act on embedded gambling promotions during sports broadcasts. Embedded promotion is defined as ‘any means of inserting brands and sponsor references into entertainment vehicles’, which might include ‘product or brand placement, sponsorship and celebrity endorsement where these occur in the context of mediated entertainment’ (Hackley & Tiwsakul, 2006, p. 64). Embedded gambling promotions refer to those that are integrated into broadcasts of match play, in contrast to paid advertising that occurs during commercial breaks in those broadcasts. While two studies examine community attitudes to and interactions with sports-embedded marketing (Pettigrew et al., 2013, Thomas, Lewis, McLeod and Haycock, 2012), none specifically focus on responses of sports bettors in general nor sports bettors who are also problem gamblers. Against this backdrop, this study aims to explore how sports bettors respond to these gambling promotions, and whether this response varies with problem gambling severity. This study, conducted in Queensland Australia, is the first known quantitative research into this issue and is therefore considered exploratory. It seeks to provide foundational information on sports bettors’ attitudes to gambling promotions during televised sport, how much these promotions encourage them to gamble, and whether the promotions are perceived to influence their sports betting behavior. A secondary aim of the paper is to identify directions for future research based on these initial findings. Growth of sports betting in AustraliaSports betting is the practice of wagering on the ultimate outcome and component outcome elements of sporting events which may be local, national or international events other than horse and greyhound racing (Macpherson, 2007). Sports betting is growing rapidly in many countries, including Australia, where a recent nationally representative telephone survey of 15,000 people reports an adult participation rate of 13% compared to 6% in 1999 (Hing, Gainsbury, et al., 2014, Productivity Commission, 1999).The National Rugby League (NRL) and Australian Football League (AFL) are the two largest betting sports in Australia, representing approximately 50% of all sports betting and earning sports betting operators margins of AU$13.4 million on NRL and AU$15.5 million on AFL betting, with turnover expected to double in the next five years (Deloitte, 2012, p. 6). Product fees of 5% of gross betting win are reportedly paid to the NRL and AFL, while sports betting operators also contribute approximately AU$45 million per year to NRL and AFL related products through sponsorship and advertising expenditure (Deloitte, 2012, p. 6). This symbiotic relationship suggests that both sports betting operators and sporting codes have a continuing interest in providing competitive and innovative market offerings that maximize returns to both parties.